Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Polycystic ovarian syndrome or commonly known as PCOS, it is also well-known by the term Stein-Leventhal syndrome.


Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a hormonal disorder that may cause females to have diverse manifestations. It must be eminent that most females with this condition have numerous small cysts inside their ovaries. Nevertheless, females can have cysts inside their ovaries for several reasons, and it is the description constellation of signs, rather than the existence of the cyst itself, which is essential in instituting the diagnosis of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. Stein-Leventhal syndrome occurs in five to ten per cent of females and is the most usual origin of sterility in females. The manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome can start in adolescence with menstrual flow irregularity, or a female who cannot know that she has this disorder until later in her life when manifestations or/and sterility occur. Women of all races can be affected.

What are the Manifestations of PCOS or Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome?

The main manifestations of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome are associated to menstrual irregularities and increased levels of hormones found in males, called androgen. Menstrual irregularities may involve a delay in normal menstruation or primary amenorrhea. The existence of smaller amounts than normal menstrual flow, termed as oligomenorrhea is also an indicative sign of this disorder. The dearth of menstrual period for several months, specifically after three months, called as secondary amenorrhea is considered to be a warning sign as well.

Menstrual flow intervals cannot be related with ovulation or anovulatory cycles. This condition can result in profound hemorrhage. Manifestations associated to the increase levels of androgen (male hormone) involve excessive hair growth or hirsutism, acne, and male-pattern loss of hair. Other manifestations of polycystic ovarian syndrome involve weight gain and obesity, increased levels of insulin, insulin resistance, dandruff, oily skin, sterility, skin discolorations, high levels of cholesterol, increased blood pressure, and several small tissue growths inside the ovaries. Any of the mentioned manifestations can be absent in this disease, with the omission of irregular or absence of menstrual flow. Women who are experiencing the condition don’t ovulate regularly. This is the reason why they don’t liberate an egg cell every month, which explains the event wherein the patient does not have regular menstrual periods and usually have problems conceiving a child.

What are the Origins of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome?

Nobody is relatively certain on the causes of polycystic ovary syndrome. It is just probably an outcome of both environmental factors as well as genetic or inherited factors. Females with this disorder frequently have a parent or a relative with the disease. Researchers are studying the significance of genetic transmutations may play in the development of the condition. The ovaries of a female with PCOS often contain several small tissue growths. Moreover, the name poly came from the connotation, many cystic ovarian syndromes. An analogous number of cysts can occur in females without this disorder. Consequently, the tissue growth themselves do not appear to be the origin of the disease.

Malfunctions of the insulin system or the blood sugar control mechanism of the body is often in females with the disease, who frequently have insulin resistance and increased levels of blood insulin. Research studies concluded that these irregularities can be associated with the development of the condition. It is as well recognized that the ovaries of females with the disease create excessive amounts of androgen. This unwarranted production of androgen can be an outcome of or associated to the irregularities in the production of insulin. Another hormonal irregularity in females with PCOS is extreme production of the luteinizing hormone or the LH. This hormone is involved in motivating the ovaries to create hormones and are released coming from the pituitary gland in the brain tissue. Other probable risk factors in the development of the disease can involve low levels of long-term inflammation in the body and fetal disclosure to androgen.

How is The Diagnosis of PCOS Done?

The detection of this disorder is made depending on the clinical manifestations as mentioned earlier, the physician will suggest excluding other diseases that have analogous characteristics, such as increased levels of prolactin or milk-producing hormone or hypothyroidism or low levels of thyroid hormone in the blood. Also unwarranted growth of tissues, such as tumors, inside the adrena