Multiple sclerosis symptoms are manifestations of a disorder in which the central nervous system, especially the nerves, degenerate.
The myelin sheath is the structure that covers and insulates the nerves. This structure also improves the relay of impulses along various nerves. It is essential for sustaining the healthy condition of the nerves. In this disease, inflammation can result in the disappearance of the myelin sheath. Subsequently, the electrical impulses that are transported along nerve fibers become slower. Moreover, the nerves may also be damaged due to these changes. The extent of the nerve damage affects the person’s daily functions that are actually controlled by the nervous system. Patients with multiple sclerosis symptoms may experience difficulties in speech, walking, writing, vision, and memory.
Typically, a patient is diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis symptoms between the age of 20 and 50. This disease also has been diagnosed in elderly people and in children.
What are the Causes of Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms?
The cause of this disease is still unknown even through the advent of technology today. In the past 20 years, research studies are focused on diseases associated with genetics and immunity for explanations of their occurrence. The immune system is the defender of the body against foreign substances. This system is highly regulated and organized. If the immune system is triggered by a foreign object or a pathogen, the body will produce defensive mechanisms which identify and attack the intruder in the body. This course of action will depend on the rate of communication among resistant cells and the creation of cells that can destroy the invader.
Multiple sclerosis is caused by the alterations in the normal process of the immune system. The immune system now can’t perceive the differences between the myelin sheath and the pathogens. The end result of this condition is that instead of destroying the pathogens, the immune system obliterates the myelin sheath of the patient. The destruction of the structures that the immune system should protect is termed “autoimmunity.” This condition is considered to be an autoimmune disease.
Several of the myelin sheaths can be repaired and restored subsequent to the attack, whereas for the other nerves, they are demyelinated or stripped of their myelin sheath. Scar tissue can also form, and substances are deposited into these scars. The accumulation of these substances will form plaque within the nerve cells.
What are the Different Types of MS?
There are various clinical symptoms of this disease. At some stage in its attack, the patient may experience an abrupt degeneration of the normal physical capacities that can range from mild to severe. The attacks are from time to time referred to as an exacerbation of multiple sclerosis symptoms. They usually last for more than 24 hours, and rarely do they occur for more than four weeks.
With regards to RR or relapsing-remitting MS, around 65 to 80 per cent of the patients start with this type which is the most prevalent type. This type of multiple sclerosis comprises a series of attacks subsequently by a partial or a complete remission phase (disappearance of manifestations) until a relapse (another attack) occurs. It can take months to decades for relapse attacks to take place.
The PP or primary progressive MS is the continuous type of multiple sclerosis. It gradually diminishes the physical capacities of the patient from the onset rather than the relapse attacks. Patients with this disease may begin with this type around the percentage of 10 to 20.
Patients who begin their multiple sclerosis with relapsing-remitting MS may then proceed to a stage where attacks are rare but more debilitating effects can take place. These are patients with SP or secondary-progressive MS. Within 10 years, around 50 per cent of patients with relapsing-remitting MS will progress to secondary-progressive MS. Several decades have passed, and most relapsing-remitting MS patients will develop secondary-progressive MS. The PR-MS type is usually characterized by a fixed decline in capacities along with sporadic attacks. In some instances, this disease can be mild and can be considered only in retrospect after several years. Rapid development of multiple sclerosis symptoms can sometimes be fatal. This condition is commonly known as fulminant or malignant multiple sclerosis.
What are the Manifestations of Multiple Sclerosis?
A multiple sclerosis diagnosis should be done after the recognition of various symptoms of this condition. The intensity of these symptoms may vary from mild to severe, and the duration may range from short-term to long-term. Partial or complete remission from manifestations occurs prematurely in around 70 per cent of patients with this disease.
• Visual disturbances can be the initial manifestation of this disease, but they are commonly restored. A patient might observe a blind spot or a patch of vague vision, monocular visual loss, and color distortions. Visual manifestations due to the inflammation of the optic nerve are usually accompanied by eye pain.
• Weakness of extremities.
• Fatigue, numbness, and muscle spasm.
• Concentration deficits.
• Memory loss.
• Judgment impairment
As the condition of the patient gets worse, he can experience other multiple sclerosis symptoms such as sexual dysfunctions and reduced bladder and bowel control. Hot weather can intensify various manifestations. Pregnancy can also decrease the risk of attacks.
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