Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes

Diabetes disease is an abnormal metabolic condition (See: Metabolic syndrome) that’s characterized by either decreased insulin production or factors that inhibit insulin action.


Insulin has a vital role in metabolism. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas (See: Pancreatic cancer symptoms). It regulates the amount of glucose in the blood. Because of some factors that result in a lack of insulin action, diabetes mellitus occurs. Diabetes disease has a slight predilection for women than men. Old people and non-Caucasians are at higher risk in developing the condition.

What are the Types of Diabetes Disease?

There are three main types of diabetes mellitus. These include: Type 1 diabetes mellitus, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is the type of diabetes that is described as having no insulin production. Type 2 diabetes mellitus refers to either a production of small amounts of insulin or the presence of other factors that interfere with the action of insulin. Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that only happens in pregnant women. It is a rare condition in which two to four per cent of pregnant women have this temporary disorder. This increases the chances of the mother and the child developing diabetes.

Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus are chronic forms of diabetes mellitus. In other words, these conditions are long-standing. On the other hand, gestational diabetes is a short-term condition that usually resolves after the birth of the child.

What are the Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes Disease?

Many cases of diabetes remain undetected because diabetic symptoms appear harmless. The symptoms are also not specific for diagnosing diabetes. Early symptoms of diabetes include: frequent hunger (polyphagia), frequent urination (polyuria), and excessive thirst (polydipsia). These three P’s are the classical signs and symptoms of diabetes.

In addition to this list, unexplained gain or loss of weight and blurry vision are also early signs. Recurring infections on the hands, vagina, skin, and gums may also suggest the presence of diabetes. Aside from the symptoms that were mentioned above, there are a number of additional Type 2 diabetes symptoms. These include: dizziness, weariness, weakness, and xerostomia.

In cases when these symptoms are felt, it is recommended to have the blood sugar levels checked. This can be done in the laboratory or at home. Diabetic supplies such as glucose level monitors are available in the market. It has the capability to monitor changes in the blood glucose levels. This machine is very expensive, but still it is a must-have machine for diabetic people.

How is Diabetes Disease Diagnosed?

Established diagnosis can be made by examining blood glucose levels. This is measured through a glucose tolerance test. It is an exam described as measuring blood sugar levels every one to two hours. Greater than or equal to 11.1 mmol/l means a definitive diagnosis of diabetes.

The World Health Organization (WHO) characterized diabetics as those individuals who have the symptoms and have a casual plasma glucose level equal to or more than 11.1 mmol/l. In addition, having a fasting plasma sugar level equal to or more than 7 mmol/l also denotes the presence of the condition.

What are the Available Treatments for Diabetes Disease?

Several treatments are available for diabetes. However, it is important to note that diabetes is not curable. These treatments may include: intravenous insulin injection, nutritious meal planning, and regular exercises.
For Type 1 diabetes mellitus, the main treatment is intravenous injection of insulin. Supportive treatments such as exercise and dietary planning are sometimes given. For Type 2 diabetes mellitus, the form of drugs given is pills. A planned menu for exercise and diet are also given. In some cases, intravenous injections are needed. Insulin injection serves as a replacement for insulin that cannot be produced by the body. It assists in moving the glucose from the blood to the tissues so that it can be used as an energy source.

Planned meals and diets are only limited to those foods that have less sucrose. This means that the intake of sugar is limited. However, a person should not worry because there are several natural recipes for diabetics. These recipes include natural sweeteners that mainly act and serve like sugars. It is recommended to get the advice of a licensed dietitian and nutritionist on the daily nutrition intake needed.

Exercise, on the other hand, is responsible for burning the extra fats and carbohydrates in the body. Aside from this, it also has the ability to make a person more responsive to insulin. Exercise should be done at least thirty minutes each day. Regular cardiopulmonary exercise will increase the stamina and make the body fit and strong.

Signs and symptoms of diabetes can be controlled and managed because of the advancements in science and technology. Undergoing regular checkups and having the knowledge about several numbers of diseases are beneficial. It is both the responsibility of the patient and the healthcare provider to identify the disease. If the diabetes disease is not controlled, future, serious complications that might even lead to death may occur.