Congestive Heart Disease

Congestive Heart Disease is the incapability of the heart to pump and supply adequate blood supply to the body.

Congestive Heart Disorder can lead to heart failure, which is extremely life-threatening. The heart is the primary organ that is responsible to provide sufficient blood supply to every part of the body. It is a literal pump machine. The heart pumps blood to the pulmonary system throughthe right ventricle to oxygenate the blood and pumps blood to every part of the body through the left ventricle. Without the heart the body would die of hypoxia and systemic organ failure.

What is Chronic Congestive Heart Disease?

It is considered to be a clinical syndrome distinguished by the symptoms and signs of inadequate tissue perfusion and fluid overload. It is a myocardial disorder in which there are identified problems with the contraction of the heart (systolic dysfunction) and filling of the heart (diastolic dysfunction) which decreases the pumping action of the heart. Chronic Congestive Heart Failure is irreversible, progresses through time and requires lifelong treatment.

There are two identified types of Chronic Congestive Heart Failure which are diagnosed by observing the left ventricular functioning via an endocardiogram. The first type has something to do with the ventricular contraction of the heart. Systolic heart failure role is due to an alteration in the expulsion of blood and can cause heart muscle weakening. The other type is associated with ventricular filling, diastolic heart failure, which is manifested by noncompliant and stiff heart muscles that makes it difficult for the ventricles to fill. The two types can be differentiated by taking the ejection fraction (EF) assessments. It is an indication that the blood volume ejection with each heart contraction. The normal value of EF ranges from 55-65% of the ventricular volume.

How does Chronic Congestive Heart Disease happen to the body?

Heart failure is an outcome of various cardiovascular disorders including coronary artery disease, hypertension and valvular diseases. Neuro-hormonal compensatory mechanism is activated as heart failure occurs in the body. This mechanism is an attempt of the body to deal with the dysfunctions that Heart Failure brings and this is the reason why Congestive Heart Failure Symptoms also come about.

This condition can cause the decrease of blood volume ejection of the ventricles. As this happens, the baroceptors in the carotid and aortic areas will stimulate the sympathetic nervous system to release norepinephrine and epinephrine which increases the contraction of the heart and subsequently, the heart rate. However, this response can give a negative effect because it decreases cardiac output and tires the heart of its excessive workload. The end result of the persistent increase of workload can lead to ventricular hypertrophy that can further upshot to an abnormal proliferation of cardiac cells.

What are the Causes of Chronic Congestive Heart Disease?

It is most frequently originates from cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, valvular disorders and hypertension. Diabetic patients are also at a high risk. The primordial cause is still atherosclerosis of coronary arteries. Acidosis and hypoxia can occur from the buildup of lactic acid caused by myocardial dysfunction due to ischemia.

Myocardial infarctions can cause focal heart muscle death and contractility loss that extends to the incidence of Heart Failure. Cardiomyopathy conditions can also contribute to the occurrence of this condition because it can upshot to the decrease of distensibility and diastolic failure. The problems then become progressive and chronic. Pulmonary or systemic hypertension can increase the workload of the cardiac muscles and leads to hypertrophy that can further progress to heart failure.  Valvular disorders are also linked to heart failure because they can escalate the pressure inside the heart and increase cardiac workload.

What is Left-Sided Chronic Congestive Heart Disease?

Left-Sided Heart Failure causes pulmonary congestion that occurs when the heart’s left ventricular functions are altered. This can affect the efficiency of the left ventricle’s  pumping action of blood into the aorta and systemic circulation.

The increase in ventricular diastolic pressure is caused by the increase in blood volume which decreases the flow of blood from the left atrium to the left ventricle upon diastole. There would be an increase in the venous blood pressure and volume which forces fluid coming from the pulmonary capillaries into the pulmonary alveoli and tissues. This results to an impairment in the body’s exchange of gases and the accumulation of pulmonary interstitial fluid or  pulmonary edema.

Chronic Congestive Heart Disease that involves the left side of the lungs show Congestive Heart Failure Symptoms such as shortness of breath or dyspnea that may precipitate even from minimal exertion, orthopnea (difficulty of breathing when lying flat), PND or parodoxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (sudden attack of dyspnea), dry and nonproductive cough, bibasilar crackles and pink tinged sputum. These symptoms are often disassociated to other pulmonary disorders so it s necessary to consult a physician to be able to diagnose the condition as early as possible because this condition can advance and lead to systemic problems.

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